When an electron is displaced in a semiconductor, the hole that’s left behind is

A. attracted to the negative terminal of the voltage source.

B. considered an impurity in the crystal.

C. incapable of carrying a charge.

D. attracted to the anode of the voltage source.

**The answer is ‘A’** which is attracted to the negative terminal of the voltage source. When a free electron is taken in by the “hole,” it creates a new hole in a slightly different location. This causes the hole to move. The electron that leaves behind a net positive charge is drawn to the negative terminal because of this charge. Due to the fact that it carries a positive charge, the “hole” is drawn to the negative terminal.

As we already got the answer, lets take a look on another type of topics as this three below.

## Electrons and holes in semiconductors

The application of band theory to electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valence band can be found in the article “Electrons and holes in semiconductors.” An inverted Fermi–Dirac distribution is the mathematical model used to describe holes. A discussion that is accurate replaces an incorrect model (the model of a cinema queue), which has been discredited. Electrons, which exist in the conduction band, and holes, which exist in the valence band, are both examples of quasi-particles. Both can have their own individual group velocities and effective masses assigned to them.

## Electron–phonon coupling in semiconductors within the GW approximation

Calculations have been made to determine the degree to which the band gaps of 18 different semiconductors, such as diamond and silicon, have been renormalized as a result of zero-point motions in the lattice. The band gaps and atomic masses of the semiconductors in this particular collection cover a wide range of possibilities. In order to obtain the renormalized electronic structures, stochastic methods are utilised to take a sample of the displacement that is associated with the vibrations in the lattice. To be more specific, a recently developed method known as the one-shot method is applied. This method requires only a single calculation to produce outcomes that are comparable to those produced by the more traditional Monte Carlo sampling. In addition to this, a fast GW method in real space is utilised, and the effects of G_{0}W_{0} corrections on the renormalization are also investigated. We find that the renormalizations of the band gap have an inverse dependence on the mass of the constituting ions, and we also find that this relationship exists.

## Coherent long-distance displacement of individual electron spins

One path toward widespread implementation of quantum computing is the manipulation of nanocircuits on the level of individual electron spins. When applied to the context of a spin-based semiconductor quantum circuit, individual electron spins are found to be highly adaptable quantum information carriers capable of linking together a variety of nodes. The challenge of keeping electron spin coherence after transfer has eluded experimentalists despite extensive efforts to regulate electron displacement over large distances. Here, we show that individual electron spins can be shifted coherently over a distance of 5 µm. At a speed of nearly 100 ms^{−1}, this movement is accomplished on a closed path made of three tunnel-coupled lateral quantum dots. The electron spin coherence without displacement predicts a spin coherence length that is eight times shorter than what we find.

### References

Electron–phonon coupling in semiconductors within the GW approximation – IOPscience