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Example of Defect in Software Testing

According to the report titled “2020 Software Testing Trends,” twenty-five percent of employees working in the technology industry believe that the most difficult obstacle that start-ups must overcome is establishing development as a priority. is an essential part of the product development process, and the work involved is of the utmost significance. This is true not only for new businesses that are just getting started, but also for software houses and even multinational corporations. Because of the work of the tester, we are able to determine which parts of the application are most important and ensure that it is of high quality by locating any errors (called defects or bugs). It is inconceivable to develop software that is flawless in every respect. Defects are an inevitable part of every product, and they have the potential to become a significant risk factor for either our company or the customers we serve. On the other hand, because we follow best practises when developing software, we can lessen the impact of any mistakes that do occur. Before we dive in into the main topic which is “Example of Software Defect in Software Testing”, let’s digest the definition of defect in software testing.

Defect in Software Testing

A variation or deviation of the software application from the requirements of the end user or the requirements of the original business is considered a defect in the software testing process. A coding error is referred to as a software defect when it leads to incorrect or unexpected results produced by a software programme that does not fulfil the requirements that are specified. During the course of executing the test cases, the testers might come across such defects. These two terms have a very fine line of distinction between them; in the industry, both refer to problems that need to be resolved, and as a result, some of the testing teams use them interchangeably. When testers carry out the test cases, they may come across test results that are in contrast to the outcomes that were anticipated. A Software Defect is what’s meant to be understood by this variation in the test results. Issues, problems, bugs, and incidents are some of the names that are used to refer to these defects or variations in various organisations.

Example of Software defect in software testing are classified into three types:

  1. Software Defects by its Severity
  2. Software Defects by its Nature
  3. Software Defects by its Priority

1. Software Defects by its Severity

The first example of software defect in software testing is software defects by its severity. The extent to which a defect affects the system is used to determine the defect’s severity level. As a consequence of this, the severity of an issue is proportional to the degree to which it interferes with the functionality or operation of a software product. On the basis of the severity measure, defects can be broken down into four different categories: critical, major, medium, and minor.

Critical Defects

A software error that has severe or even catastrophic repercussions for the way an application is meant to be used is referred to as a critical defect. The application may become unusable as a result of critical defects, which may also cause it to crash or freeze. They can also lead to the loss of data or vulnerabilities in the security system. Because critical bugs need to be fixed as quickly as possible, developers and testers typically give critical bugs the highest priority among the defects to be fixed.

Major Defects

A software bug that has significant repercussions for the way the application is meant to be used is referred to as a major defect. The application may perform slowly as a result of major defects, as well as exhibit other behaviours that are unexpected. They can also lead to the loss of data or vulnerabilities in the security system. Because major flaws need to be fixed as quickly as possible, developers and testers typically give major defects a high priority in terms of fixing them.

Minor Defects

A software bug that has a minimal or negligible impact on the way in which the application is used is referred to as having a minor defect. The application may perform slightly more slowly than expected due to minor defects, or it may exhibit other behaviours that are unexpected. Because they can be fixed at a later time, developers and testers frequently place a low priority on addressing defects that are considered to be of a minor nature.

Trivial Defects

A software bug that has no bearing on the way the application is meant to be used is referred to as a trivial defect. The application may display an error message or behave in other unexpected ways if it contains defects that are relatively minor. Developers and testers typically assign the lowest priority to defects that are considered to be trivial because it is possible to fix them at a later time.

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2. Software Defects by its Nature

The second example of software defect in software testing is software defects by its nature. Bugs in software can take on a wide variety of forms, each of which is characterised by its own unique collection of symptoms. Even though there are a great number of these kinds of bugs, you probably won’t run into them very frequently. The following is a classification of the most common types of software bugs, which are the types of bugs that are most likely to be found during software testing.

Functional Bugs

As their name implies, functional bugs are those that result in the software being unable to perform its intended functions. One good illustration of this would be a button that, when clicked, is supposed to open a new window but, instead, nothing happens. This is an unfortunate example. Bugs that affect functionality can be resolved by conducting functional testing.

Unit Level Bugs

Unit level bugs are defects that are associated with the operation of a specific software unit. The smallest testable component of an application is referred to as a “software unit.” Classes, methods, and procedures are all types of software that can be considered “units.” Bugs that affect individual units can have a significant bearing on the overall quality of the software. Bugs at the unit level can be resolved by carrying out unit testing.

Integration Level Bugs

Integration level bugs are flaws in the software that manifest themselves after two or more software units have been combined. It may be challenging to locate and correct these defects, as doing so frequently requires coordination between a number of different teams. Nevertheless, they have the potential to have a significant effect on the software’s quality as a whole. Integration testing allows for the identification and correction of integration bugs.

Usability defects

Bugs that affect usability are defects that have an adverse effect on the user’s experience with the software and make it more difficult to use. A problem with the user interface or user experience of software that makes it difficult to use is referred to as a usability defect. Bugs that affect a website’s usability include those that make it difficult to access the site or navigate it, as well as those that make the registration process difficult to complete. Software testers examine applications in relation to user requirements and the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) in the course of usability testing in order to identify issues of this nature. Nevertheless, they have the potential to have a significant effect on the software’s quality as a whole. Usability testing allows for the identification and correction of usability bugs.

Performance defects

Bugs with an impact on the software’s performance are referred to as performance bugs. This can include aspects such as the speed at which the software operates, the amount of memory that it uses, or the number of resources that it consumes. Bugs that affect a performance level can be difficult to locate and fix because they can be triggered by a diverse range of factors. Bugs in usability can be fixed by performing performance testing on the application.

Security defects

Software defects of the security variety can cause significant problems for the user if they are not promptly resolved. Because of these flaws, malicious users may be able to gain access to sensitive data or systems, and in some cases, they may even be able to take control of the software that is affected. As a result, it is essential that bugs affecting the level of security be given a high priority and fixed as soon as they are discovered. Bugs in security can be fixed through the process of performing security testing.

Compatibility defects

When an application is incompatible with the hardware it is using or with other applications it has to interface with, compatibility faults occur. These compatibility issues can also arise when an application is not compatible with the operating system it is being run on. An incompatibility between the software and the hardware can lead to system failures, the loss of data, and other unexpected behaviours. The people testing the software need to be aware of any compatibility issues and test accordingly. When a software application has compatibility issues, it will not run the same way on various kinds of hardware, operating systems, web browsers, and devices when it is connected with particular programmes or when it is operating under particular network conditions. Testing for compatibility allows for the correction of any compatibility bugs that may exist.

Syntax Errors

Errors in syntax constitute the most fundamental category of flaw. They appear when the program’s code does something that is forbidden by the programming language’s guidelines. An example of a syntax error would be using punctuation that is not correct or failing to close a bracket when it should have been. Errors in syntax will typically result in the programme being unable to run at all, making it relatively simple to identify and correct them.

Logic errors

Logic bugs are flaws in a program’s logic that result in the programme producing incorrect results. Because these bugs frequently do not result in any noticeable errors, it can be challenging to locate and fix them. Bugs in logic can occur in any kind of software, but they are especially common in programmes that need to perform complicated calculations or decisions.

The following are some common symptoms of logic bugs:

  • Freezing and crashing of the software
  • Incorrect outcomes or outputs as a result.
  • Unexpected behavior

To find and correct logic bugs, testers must have a thorough understanding of both the program’s source code and how it ought to be operating. Utilizing debugging tools or performing step-by-step execution in order to track the program’s execution and determine where things go wrong is frequently the most effective method for locating bugs of this kind.

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3. Software Defects by its Priority

Low Priority Defects

The third example of software defect in software testing is software defects by its priority. Low priority flaws are those that don’t significantly affect how the programme works and may wait until the next release or version to be addressed since they don’t pose a serious risk to how the product works. Inaccuracies of a purely cosmetic nature, such as misspelt words, improper alignment, etc., fall into this category.

Medium Priority Defects

Defects with a medium priority are those that could potentially be corrected after an upcoming release or in the release that comes after that. An example of a defect with a medium priority would be an application that produces the desired result but produces incorrect formatting in a particular browser.

High Priority Defects

High priority defects are those that have a significant influence on how the software actually performs, as suggested by the name of the category. These flaws need to be fixed as soon as possible in most circumstances because they have the potential to cause significant interruptions in the normal flow of work. Defects with a high priority are typically referred to as showstoppers. This is because they have the potential to prevent the user from moving forward with the task at hand.

Urgent Defects

Urgent defects are those that, once reported, need to have a solution implemented within the next twenty-four hours. Defects that have been rated as having a critical severity level are included in this category. Nevertheless, high-priority fixes could even be assigned to issues with a low severity level. For example, a typo in the name of a company that appears on the homepage of an application does not have an effect on the software itself, but it does have a significant effect on the business, and as a result, it is considered to be an urgent matter.

Extra Defects

#1. Missing Defects

The requirements that were not fulfilled by the product give rise to the phenomenon known as “missing defects.” They are also regarded as deviations from the project specification, and in most cases, they have a detrimental effect either on the quality of the software or the user experience.

#2. Wrong Defects

To have a defect that satisfies the requirement but does so in an improper manner is an example of a wrong defect. It indicates that even though the functionality has been achieved as specified, it does not meet the standards set by the user.

#3. Regression Defects

When a modification to the code results in an effect that was not intended on an independent component of the software, this is known as a regression defect.

Defects and their business impact

Every software product contains a number of errors, and this is unavoidable. It is a reality that we must face and accept that it is simply impossible to find all of the bugs. Our mission is to ensure the highest possible quality while simultaneously lowering the costs associated with business defects, which can be quite serious. A corporation runs the danger of suffering financial losses at any point during the software development process. Finding and fixing an error in the code at an earlier stage of production will almost always result in lower costs than fixing the error and dealing with its repercussions after the software has been released or implemented. Space missions such as Mariner 1 and Ariane 5 have been responsible for a significant amount of money that has been frittered away. Shortly after takeoff, each of these devices was destroyed in order to prevent the mission from being successful. A flaw in the software was the root cause of each of these catastrophes. If testing of the code had been done in advance, this problem could have been avoided.

There is also a risk to the company’s image. An illustration of this would be the most well-known social networking website, Facebook. The trust that users had in this platform was severely damaged in 2018 when a data breach occurred as a result of a bug in the photo API. Not only can faulty code lead to obvious consequences like financial losses or a negative impact on brand image, but it can also lead to other, less obvious outcomes. It is also possible for it to be a significant repercussion of a significant magnitude. An illustration of this would be the energy crisis that hit North America in 2003, known as the “Blackout of 2003,” which was brought on by a bug in the control software for the power grid. This event had repercussions in North America and parts of Canada, and it resulted in widespread mayhem, a string of fires, and enormous financial losses. How can we prevent accidents like these? Even though it is impossible to test every aspect of the software, we can still take steps to reduce the risk. We are able to identify and test those areas that are most likely to fail thanks to risk analysis, which allows us to determine which areas are exposed to the greatest risk potential.

How to manage bugs?

When we discover bugs, the next step is to figure out how to manage them. It would appear that locating errors is a simple task; after all, we are expected to fix every issue that is discovered, right? But what if our human resources are limited, the deadlines are drawing near, and the number of mistakes is increasing? To begin, we have to arrange the defects in descending order of importance. Using this metric, we can determine the level of severity of the correction. We no longer need to worry about constantly having to fight errors because we can plan our work thanks to prioritisation. Obviously, there are some flaws that need to be fixed right away, but the vast majority of them can wait until their turn comes around.

Another helpful metric for managing errors is their level of severity. It provides information on the effect that a particular bug will have on the application. In the same vein as prioritisation, its levels need to be precisely outlined. A failure such as being unable to perform a rapid transfer within the banking system is an illustration of a critical error. On the other hand, if there is a mistake with the logo, it will not have a significant effect on the system. In addition to this, you can organise the bugs. This makes it possible to create databases and reports that are more accurate, which in turn enables testers to check to see if a particular error has already been reported. Additionally, it makes it possible to perform better diagnostics and to identify the application areas that are producing the most issues, i.e., the ones that need extra care during subsequent tests.


It can be challenging for the software tester to determine whether a problem is a deviation in the functionality of the software or an issue with the software’s working. Testing is not necessary if the software is developed without any flaws; however, as long as the software is used in the business world, there is a possibility that flaws will be discovered in the software due to the increasing complexity of the software.


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Defect Management Process in Software Testing (Bug Report). (2020, January 11). Guru99. Retrieved January 29, 2023, from https://www.guru99.com/defect-management-process.html

R. (2022, September 7). 20 Types of Software Defects Every Tester Should Know. Software Testing Material. Retrieved January 29, 2023, from https://www.softwaretestingmaterial.com/types-of-software-defects/